I am convinced that part of the job of an architect is to select, improve and, if need be, create tools to support the activity of developers. In this class, Gregor presented concrete cases and best practices for building simple and efficient tools that turn complex software in pictures we can understand.
This approach also concurs with Granville Miller's notion of "trailing shadows" that must come for free: a visualization tool that automatically produces models is useful to keep track of the actual architecture of a system. Since systems evolve uncontrolled in the world of agile, models should evolve dynamically or be discarded.
Because we, humans, are good in spotting patterns, it is essential to generate simple pictures that focus only on certain aspects we want to consider. Therefore complete models for large systems are, if not impossible to build, at least impossible to read thus useless. Building focused ad-hoc models is the key. Gregor introduced a five steps approach for this:
- Select Meta-Model: No academic work here! Simply define the elements, their relationships and the rules that apply to them. Popular meta-models include: metrics, directed graphs, trees and process models.
- Inspection / Instrumentation: There are two approaches here. Static inspection of the system design (source code, configuration...) and dynamic instrumentation of the running system (profiling, message or network sniffing, log file parsing...).
- Mapping to Model: Instead of mapping to the graphic artifacts, map to the model that is an intermediate abstraction to isolate the concerns of internally and visually represent the system (they both evolve differently and should not be connected).
- Vizualisation / Output: Use an automated graph layout tool (like GraphViz or JUNG).
- Validation / Analysis: It is possible to apply rules against the model, like figuring out circles in a dependency graph, identifying islands or root nodes.
API Design as if Unit Testing Mattered (Michael Feathers)
Another packed presentation by Object Mentor: this company sure is a guru seedbed. Even Josh Bloch and Gregor Hohpe attended... and in an active manner!
After fiddling a little with JavaMail, Michael quickly made the point that it is pretty easy to make an API that is not only convoluted but also very hard (if not impossible) to use in code you want to unit test.
An API is a complex software entity because, once you have published it, you have made an implicit commitment and can not back off from it. A good design makes the API useful for its client while being extensible for future needs. It also must not impair the testability of the system that uses it.
Michael then listed some anti-patterns, like having only private implementers, exposing partially implemented superclass, forcing the user to instantiate chains of objects and using static factory method. To be frank, I kind of disagree on some of them: for example, if I provide a public interface, why should I also make public the implementing class I use? While agreeing to these points, Josh often gave possible ways to follow these anti-patterns but in a virtuous way. For example, using a SPI mechanism.
We also got a list of tips and tricks including:
- avoiding static methods (unless an operation is completely replaceable or will never need to be replaced),
- keeping the envelope of an API to its envelop of use (to which Josh responded that it is possible to expose advanced methods with plenty of warnings: see java.lang.Enum.name),
- supplying interfaces for all public objects,
- ensuring the users have ways to mock the API (else they will have to wrap it),
- avoiding making public classes final (unless there is a compelling reason for doing so),
- practicing to write unit tests for code that uses the API (not only for the API itself),
- supplying the unit tests of the API to the users.
The Social Enterprise: Innovation + Technology = Good Samaritan? (Carlos Baradello & Patrick Guerra)
Starting with the Good Samaritan story, this keynote lead us through the reality and the necessity of social entrepreneurship. The good thing about it? It has nothing to do with pure philanthropy but is really about building sustainable business models that end up benefiting all the parties involved into.
In geek talk, you will be glad to learn there is a 5 Giga Bucks market of 4 Mega People out there waiting to be tapped but the right way. Like the Good Samaritan, seeing when others merely watch and being able to connect dots where others stay in the blur, is of paramount importance. This involves all of the usual entrepreneur qualities (ambition, mission driven, strategic thinking, resourceful, resuls oriented) plus the exacerbated desire to step out of the comfort zone.
How to leverage the lessons learned in Silicon Valley for that? How to combine opportunity and innovation in order to achieve sustainability, positive social impact and social benefit? How to strike a balance between a fully for profit enterprise and a fully non-profit organization?
To start finding answers, it is important to consider that we live in an highly interconnected world, where new types of diasporas have emerged because nowadays air travel is affordable and pervasive telecommunication allows to maintain connectivity with the roots. It is also helpful to consider the opportunities from a high level point of view. Here is a list of the current opportunities: digital divide, health care, "collaboratories", affinity group aggregation, mobile knowledge, commerce and e-commerce and off the grid infrastructure. Trying to build solutions in these fields by leveraging current massively available technologies (like mobile phones) is another critical aspect.
To my sense, the main question raised by this keynote is the following: with all the knowledge we have, what are we going to do to improve the condition of mankind. To anyone considering new career options or reaching a certain age in the business, I believe this question should become a burning one.
Extreme Hiring: A Radical New Approach to Finding the Best Programmers (Brian Robertson)
In this very interesting session, Brian shared with us the lessons that his company has learned from hiring programmers and what process the now have in place. As a direct teaser, it is important to know that their extreme hiring process allowed us to divide the number of applications by ten, which was a great thing because the actual applicants are now of greater quality.
How to reach that goal? They first had to realize that the current pervasive vision of the world is still "business as machine", where machines are predictable, organized and made of parts. Where do people fit in this world view? Well, they are "human resources" (dub it: cogs). They came to favor an alternative world view, where humans are living systems, which self organize, sustain themselves and follow the rules of dynamic control not predictive control. And so are organizations.
Hence hiring should not be a process of finding the cogs that best matches some specifications, by applying pattern matching on their specifications sheets, em, their resumes. Dee Hock, of Visa International, said that we should "hire and promote integrity, motivation, capacity, understanding, knowledge and experience" in that very order of importance.
Brian broke this list in two categories: the first three ones in "cultural fit and talent" and the last three ones in "skills". Though skills can be acquired and built, talent and cultural fit can not. Therefore it is of paramount importance for a company to first define the particular talents it needs and what are its core values (that will determine the cultural fit of a candidate or its lack thereof). This introspection the company has to do must be honest and based on actual facts, not wishes.
How to spot talents? Their usual evidences are instantaneous responses, recurring pattern of behavior and passion. Brian stating the interesting fact that a candidate's strength is a skill served by a talent and that using this strength is energizing and satisfying. I find this definition of great interest.
So what recruiting process do they use? I do not want to disclose to much of it, mainly because I think each company should tailor it in an iterative process (sure enough, there will be casting errors). This said, here some of there key ideas:
- Post job ads designed to attract great people with clear cultural requirements and core values that allows candidates to self-select out,
- Ask for custom application letters, not formal cover ones,
- Make the applicant write several short essays replying to simple questions,
- Offer resume submission as truly optional,
- Ask for a remote coding test and offer the possibility for the candidate to upload bits of code he has written in other context,
- Do technical and personal phone interviews,
- Do on-site interviews with team project simulation, debriefing, group and personal interviews and after hours socialization.
War Stories: Fighter Jets and Agile Development at Lockheed Martin (Mike Zwicker)
Man, SD West has been breathtaking until the last minute. This session, brilliantly presented by Mike Zwicker was amazing! When you hear Lockheed Martin, you immediately translate it into "waterfall". Mike shared with us the story of introducing agile in this venerable company. He went through detailing the compelling reasons from agile, its successes and its challenges.
Was there anything new here? Nope. Was it worth attending, then? Yes! Consider that: when you tell your other half you love her, is there anything new there? Nope. But it is just so good and so right to hear it again, and again, and again. Why? Because circumstances change every day and this love you keep re-asserting is like these stories of successful agility in different enterprise contexts. It is sheer bliss to keep telling again and over again these stories of drastic improvements in productivity, reduced software defects, shortened time to market and lighter costs!
I can hardly sum up my notes so I will just share three facts out of Mike prolific talk:
- They have introduced agility in 3 phases: pilot (6-9 months), department launch (24-27 months) and enterprise rollout (24 months) ; each building on the previous phase. In fact, they have not started the last phase yet but are getting there.
- They have opted for Scrum for the management framework it provides, but have also shopped practices at XP, Crystal and other shops of delicacies.
- They decided to use a tool (VersionOne) only because they had distributed teams.
It is now time to leave Sunny Silicon Valley. For me, SD West 2007 was a great vintage, with only one out of 15 presentations that turned disappointing. The rest was extremely instructive, thought provocative and entertaining.
Final note: slap on my hand! By turning airport off when not needed and tuning the performance setup, I could drain a lofty 4 hours of battery lifetime off my MacBook Pro. This machine really rocks.